Why should I need to produce Clean Milk?
- Clean Milk is necessary for the Health of Consumers.
- Clean Milk has good Self Life.
- Because of long self life it can be transported to remote places easily.
- Clean Milk is pre-requisite to produce other export quality milk products.
- Milk product from Clean Milk remains longer time in market.
- Clean Milk has higher market price.
- It becomes easy to comply export norms for Clean Milk.
- It becomes trouble-free to fulfill legal standards and norms through Clean Milk production.
Which are the care and management requirements for Clean Milk Production?
- To have good healthy hygiene and healthy animals
- While purchasing animals, make sure they are disease free. Ask for nearby veterinarian help if needed
- Diseased animals should be segregated from the heard and managed separately.
- Do not supply milk of diseased animals to Dairy Milk Collection Centers.
- Maintain good animal hygiene by regular bathing and trimming of hairs.
Which are the precautions to be undertaken while milking for Clean Milk Production?
- Before milking, teat and udder should be thoroughly cleaned with the help of clean and warm water.
- Animal shed should be cleaned any hygienic.
- The utensils used for collecting milk while milking should be of narrow neck, clean, without any joints and should be made up of either steel or aluminum.
- Milk should be immediately sieved and covered with lid after milking.
- The person who is milking should have clean cloths, trimmed nails and should was hands with soap before milking.
- The utensils used before and after milking should be washed thoroughly with the help of warm potable water.
- For milking use pressure on teat rather than stretching.
- Milking procedure should be always fast and it should be completed within 5-6 min.
- Always provide concentrate or green fodder while milking.
How does hygienic environment of Milking Shed affects Clean Milk Production?
- Milking Shed should be Hygienic with good ventilation.
- Prefer Cement Concrete floor in Animal Houses to facilitate cleaning.
- Change over animal shed at least once in a day.
- Animal excreta should be discarded away from the animal shed.
- Take necessary actions to avoid files, mosquitoes, mites, ticks or mice in the shed.
- To avoid contamination of milk through particles, do not offer dry fodder before milking or do not throw any waste while milking..
What should be considered before selecting breeding bull?
Milk production genealogy, breed, deformities in reproductive organs, genetic defects, congenital defects, physical development and infectious disease free status of the animal should be considered for selecting the bull for natural service.
Which are the signs of heat (oestrus) in cow/buffalo?
The cow or buffalo in heat (oestrus) shows clear watery discharge from vagina. External genitalia becomes hyperemic andswollen, frequent micturation, animals continues bellowing frequently. In cattle mounting on other animals is often while it is seldom
observed in buffalo.Milch animals show withholding of milk while milking.
When should I ask for Artificial Insemination when my animal is in heat?
Ideal time for Artificial Insemination is 10-12 hrs after initiation of heat signs. For the thumb rule,if animal shows heat in morning, AI should be done in the evening and vice versa.
How long it takes to get a heifer pregnant?
On an average a heifer cow or heifer buffalo should be pregnant at the age of 2.5 to 3.0 yrs.
When should I ask for Pregnancy Diagnosis of my Animal after AI?
Pregnancy diagnosis is advisable after 3 months of Artificial Insemination.
How pregnant animals should be managed?
Pregnant animals should be provided good ventilated housing which should also protect animals from external heat, cold and rainy environmental effects. Such animals should be provided Green Fodder, Roughages, Concentrate and drinking water as recommended.
Pregnant Animals must be provided salt 30-50 g and mineral mixture 25-30 g in their daily ration.
What to do with repeat breeder animals?
When your animal does not conceive through AI or natural service, you should consult near by Veterinary Dispensary where a Veterinary Doctor would examine the animal for genitalia or any other reason for repeat breeding. You will be instructed there for
What to do if my pregnant animal aborts consecutively?
Pregnant animals may abort due to excessive environmental distress because of heat. But hormonal disturbances or infectious such as Brucellosis or Trichomoniasis may also be responsible, a thorough investigation may be carried out at nearby dispensary.
What is ideal calving interval?
Ideally "A calf – A year” is the ideal policy for profitable Animal Husbandry Practices.
When should I allow my animal to conceive after parturition?
For profitable Animal Husbandry practice one should make sure that his/her animal get conceived within 3 months of parturition.
What is the gestation period in cow/buffalo?
Gestation period on an average in cow is 280 days (9 months 9 days) and for buffalo 310 days(10 months 10 days).
How long I should wait for complete shredding of placenta after parturition?
Generally placenta get sloughed out within 2-3 hours of parturition but at the most one should wait for 12 hours, then after nearby veterinary dispensary should be contacted for further treatment
When and How much should we offer colostrums to newly born calf?
A newly born calf should be offered colostrums 10% of it’s bodyweightwithin 30 minutes after parturition. After that calf should be offered colostrums 10% of it’s bodyweight twice daily for next 4 to 5 days.
What are the advantages of Artificial Insemination?
- Compare to Natural Service a male can cover 125-150 times more female.
- Farmers can avoid major cost of rearing Bull for Natural Service.
- Sexually transmitted diseases like brucellosis, vibriosis, trichomoniasis etc can be prevented.
- Animals with congenital defects for breeding can be traced out at the time of AI.
- AI performed through scientific method increases conception rate.
- As frozen semen can be stored for long time, high quality male semen doses of elite bull can used to breed animals even after death of such bulls.
- It is possible to breed animals even after permanent disability of bull through fracture or any other reasons.
Why newly born calves should be offered colostrums within half an hour?
Colostrum is reached in immune globulins, proteins, vitamins and mineral. Even it has laxative property and hence it is much more beneficial to newly born calf.
What are post-parturient cares and management in cow/buffalo?
Immediately after parturition the dam should be offered warm drinking water and high energy carbohydrates in feed. 50% colostrums can be stripped out in case udder becomes engorged. Fluid accumulated in nostrils and trachea should be removed. Naval cord of the calf should be cut 2-3 inch lower to the naval by tightly applying tourniquet above the line of incision. Immediately after cutting the naval cord antiseptic liquid like tincture iodine should be applied on it. For newly born calf extra long hooves can be trimmed. Newly borne calf should be offered colostrums within half an hour.
Which are the diseases that occurs because of poor managemental practices?
Because of poor management of pregnant animals, animal may suffer from diseases like Milk Fever, Ketosis or Abomasal Displacement.
How much water should be offered to cows/buffaloes in winter and summer?
In winter, adult cow should be offered atleast 35-40 liters of drinking water while buffalo should be offered 45-50 liters of drinking water. The requirement of the same is 1.5 fold higher in case of summer to cope up excessive environmental heat.
What managemental practices a farmer should adopt for profitable Animal Husbandry?
For profitable animal husbandry a farmer should always offer chaffed fodder to animals, protect them from extreme heat or cold environmental conditions. Provide seasonal nutritious feed and ample water to animals.
What is the floor space requirement of adult animal in a shed?
Generally an adult cow/buffalo should be provide 40 sq.ft. area (8 ft X 5 ft) floor space in the shed.
Kindly provide us information from where to purchase Gir cows/bulls?
Generally such animals should be purchased from their home tract (Saurashtra Region). The animals with typical breed characters like dark red body colouror white and red spotted body, short horns , shape of ears resembling like leaf of Pipal tree, convex forehead well projected etc should be preferred.
Which are the precautions one should consider before purchasing a milch animal?
Milch animal should be pedigree animals, of 2nd or 3rd lactation, milk vein should be pronounced andconvoluting, all teat should be of medium and equal size, milk production of the dam should be known.
Which are the effects of climate change on the production of the animals?
Extreme climatic changes like heat and cold reduces the milk production of the milch animals, also reduced productivity and reproductive performance of the animals. In case of draught animals the ability to bear weight reduces greatly.
What care and management practices should be undertaken in case of flood?
In case of flood, animals should be kept on elevated places to avoid drowning of animals. Dry fodder should be stored properly to avoid damping. Post flood vaccination should be carry out to prevent outbreak of infectious disease. Thus, take necessary precautions of the animals to avoid chances of pneumonia in the animals. In case of draught animals the ability to bear weight reduces greatly.
What measures should be undertaken at the time of cyclone?
In case of cyclone, to avoid loss of animals due to physical injuries, instead of tying them in shed or under tree they should be tied in space open to sky.
What measures should be undertaken at the time of drought?
In case of drought, clean potable water should be made available for the animals. Dry and green fodder should be checked for fungal growth or presence of toxic substances.
How can I prevent toxic effects of fodders to my animals?
To prevent animals from toxic effects of grass fodder following steps should be taken.
- Don’t offer green immature sorghum to animals before 50% flowering
- Don’t offer Castor leaves
- Don’t offer green fodder recently treated with pesticide
- Don’t keep pesticide vials/tins nearer to feeding trough
- On accidental ingestion of toxic food, don’t provide drinking water to the animals and contact nearby veterinary dispensary immediately.
- Don’t offer damped or feed with fungal growth to animals.
What is advantage of chaffed fodder?
Chaffing makes even mixture of leaves and stem portion of the fodder, so animals do not have choice for selective eating of leave and hence it leads to 30% saving in the fodder consumption.
How much concentrate mixture should be offered in animal feed?
Dry animals should be offered 1 kg/day concentrate in their feed for daily maintenance. However milch animals should be provided maintenance 1kg and additionally 400g concentrate/ liter milk production. For example if a cow yielding 5 lit/day milk should be provided concentrate feed 1 kg maintenance and additional 2 kg for production requirement of the animal. In case of buffalo concentrate feed requirement for production is 500g/lit of milk production.
What is the recommended proportion of green fodder to dry fodder in animal feed?
Dry fodder requirement is 5-7 kg (for cow or buffalo weighing 350 g to 400 g), more over leguminous fodder 4 kg and non leguminous fodder 8 kg should be provided additional to dry fodder.
What should be ratio of leguminous to non leguminous in green fodder?
In animal feed for green fodder, proportion of leguminous to non leguminous fodder should be 1:2.
Which process should undertake while using non-conventional feed source in animal feed?
Process like ‘Urea Treatment’ should be adopted to process non-conventional animal feed.
How to manage green fodder to make it available throughout the year?
- To use perineal Lucerne
- Multicut variety of Sorghum should be used
- Fodder like NB-21, Para Grass, Elephant grass etc should be planted on outskirt of the farm.